___________ WELCOME TO ___________  
Bioremediation is defined by the American Academy of Microbiology as "the use of living organisms to reduce or eliminate environmental hazards resulting from accumulations of toxic chemicals and other hazardous wastes" (Gibson and Sayler, 1992). The technology is approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Environment Canada, and other regulatory agencies worldwide.

Bioremediation involves the degradation of contaminants present in various sites (soils, water, wastewater, and buildings among others) with the help of fungi, plants, or their enzymes. Most microorganisms utilize contaminants as a source of energy and biodegrade them. "Bioremediation is gaining attention as it is fast, economical, and does not require heavy machinery or skilled labor," according to the analyst of this research service. "These technologies are also efficient in the biodegradation of contaminants to create end products that are not hazardous to the environment."

In this industry, bioremediation technologies in companies generally vary from one site to another depending on the kind of contaminants, the hydrogeology, and the accessibility of the contaminants. The roadmap however, is the same; initially, a study is done on the site, and then on the contaminants present in the site. Accordingly, the right kind of bioremediation technology that suits the site is adopted. With increased interest being generated in these technologies, companies are keen on adopting them for their sites. This not only boosts the market size, but it also encourages research to cater companies with unique requirements.
Stages undertaken by Sai Inno prior to treating agricultural and industrial waste  
A successful, cost-effective microbial bioremediation program is dependent on hydrogeologic conditions, the amount and characteristics of the contaminants, the ecology and adaptability of the prevailing microbes and other variable spatial and temporal factors. The Company will assess and undertake these steps before embarking into a viable bioremediation project.

Bio-treatability studies are vital in a bioremediation program. These studies are performed to evaluate whether site conditions are conducive for bioremediation.

The elements involved in bio-treatability studies undertaken by Sai Inno include:
  Screening studies
    to obtain biodegradation indicator parameter data such as electron acceptors/donors, oxidation-reduction potential, and pH;
  Microbiological assays
    to assess microbial growth conditions, degrader population densities and presence of enzymes capable of destroying contaminants of concern; and/or
  Microcosm studies
    to evaluate bioremediation potential under controlled conditions. During implementation of microbe bioremediation programs, performance monitoring plays a key role in evaluating treatment effectiveness. Microbe biodegradation monitoring objectives are generally to evaluate contaminant attenuation over time and protect sensitive receptors.
The microbial bioremediation programs that address these factors will have the greatest likelihood of success and will conserve limited financial resources. When properly executed, microbe bioremediation can cost-effectively and expeditiously destroy or immobilize contaminants in a manner that fosters regulatory compliance and is compatible to human health and the environment.  
Technology Application by Sai Inno in treating palm waste      
  The first commercial activities carried out by Sai Inno would be in the realm of research, development and bioremediation of palm waste via the utilization of microbial-based processes. The major activities involved in the bio-remediation process will emphasize the optimization of EM in the existing palm waste compost.

The Company has conducted numerous research and development before developing a bioremediation systems for palm waste especially EFB which is called Sai Inno™ EFB In-situ BioRemediation System. The system was designed for the purpose of solving environmental problems of palm oil mill bio-waste and converting it to fertilizer. The system works in a complete and compact manner in which it uses mechanical machinery to physically break down the waste and adds in-house developed EM (from locally derived microbes as well as enzymatic additives) to catalyze the fermentation which helps to speed up the waste degradation process.
The know-how on the isolation of microbes from the developed EFB compost pile would be the core value of the activity. The technology of isolating and stabilizing the microorganisms that has been found to provide optimum biocatalytic activity in the modified waste pile adds value to the concept. These isolates are then enriched before being re-incorporated for the production of biologically active organic fertilizer.

Collectively, this provides a faster degradation process The final product of the system is a fully matured compost which could also be classified as biofertilizer; it is suitable for vegetable and other plantation crops due to the high content of beneficial microbes.

The service of commissioning a professional microbial catalytic technology increases the benefits of EFB and other palm waste. Moreover, this service contributes in the improvement of solid waste management process and enhances the quality of the end-product which is an organic material with high quality and value. Some of the core microorganisms involved in this process are Trichoderma harzianum spp., Aspergilus niger spp. and Penicillium chrysosporium spp.
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